Models of Communication
Various models of communication are shown in Figure:
- AIDA Model
- Levidge and Steiner Model
- Hierarchy of Effects Model
- Innovation-adoption Model
- Information Processing Model
Table of Contents
One of the earliest model of communication and advertising effectiveness measurement revolves around what communication goals the marketers set for an advertising program. This is known as AIDA Model.
It proposes that the advertising effect is the consumer response to which a potential customer is induced due to an advertising program. The hierarchy of effects can be explained as per Figure in which the customer passes through stages of attention, interest, desire and action.
AIDA Theory of model of communication highlights the importance of attracting the attention of the prospects and creating interest through the advertising messages. The desire to obtain advertised goods/services may be generated to various degrees among different prospects due to consistent exposure to advertising.
The final stage of action or buying occurs as a result of customers passing through one stage to the other. The act of purchase is influenced by many other moderating factors, like product quality, perceived brand image and distribution and logistics facilities of the company.
Levidge and Steiner Model
They give higher importance to cognitive evaluations before the purchase. With an increase in competition and enhancement in discerning abilities of potential buyers and users, information is likely to play a greater role.
The persuasive power of advertising in itself is a function of the information content. This model also takes into account the prevailing degree of competition.
The competition can arise between two brands or between substitute products in two dissimilar categories.
The stage of liking (after the stage of awareness and knowledge) refers to the ability of advertising in creating a choice through its creativity and theme.
Hierarchy of Effects Model
This model also suggests that advertising produces its effects by moving the consumer through a series of steps in a sequence from initial awareness to the ultimate purchase of a product or service.
The following are the effects of communication:
- Create awareness among 90% of target audience – Use repetitive ad in newspaper/magazines.
- Create interest in the brand among 70% of target audience – Communicate the information about the benefit of the brand such as “The cream is non-sticky and causes no harm to the skin”.
- Create positive feeling about the brand to at least 40% of the target audience and create a preference to atleast 25% of the target audience – Create favourable attitudes by supplying them samples conveying more information, carrying out promotional programme etc.
- Get trial among 20% of the target audience – Issue coupons and discounts to make trial purchase, use advertisement to achieve this.
- Continue reinforcement of advertising and more promotion to get at least 5% customers who repurchase.
According to Everett M. Rogers, this model of communication evolved from work on the diffusion of innovations. The model depicts various sequential steps and stages that a consumer moves through in adopting a new product or service.
Marketers face the challenge of creating awareness and interest and the best way to persuade consumers to evaluate a brand is by inducing product trial or sometimes product-in-use demonstration. This can lead to product adoption as a result of consumer satisfaction or rejection if the consumer is not satisfied.
Information Processing Model
William McGuire developed this model of communication which assumes that advertising audience is information processors and problem solvers.
Information Processing Model include following stage:
The first three stages in the model, presentation, attention, and comprehension are similar to awareness and knowledge, and yielding means the same as liking. Up to this point there is similarity with Lavidge and Steiner’s model.
The next stage, retention is unique to this model.
Retention refers to the ability of the consumer to accept and store in memory the relevant information about the product or service.
Retention of information is important because most advertising is designed to motivate and precipitate action not just immediately, and the retained information is used at a later time to make a purchase decision.
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