What is Market Segmentation?
Market segmentation is the process of dividing a total market into market groups consisting of people who have relatively similar product needs, tastes, and preferences. The purpose is to design a marketing mix strategy that more precisely matches the needs of individuals in a selected market segment(s).
Market segmentation is the technique used to enable a business to better target its products at the right customers. It is about identifying the specific needs and wants of customer groups and then using those insights into providing products and services which meet customer needs.
Table of Contents
- 1 What is Market Segmentation?
- 2 What is Market?
- 3 Market Segmentation Definition
- 4 Objectives of Market Segmentation
- 5 Types of Market Segmentation
- 6 Bases of Market Segmentation
- 7 Market Segmentation Process
- 8 Importance of Market Segmentation
- 9 Examples of market segmentation
- 10 What is the Target Market?
- 11 Marketing Management Topics
What is Market?
Market is a place where trade activity is carried on. It means buying and selling goods. Market refers to a huge number of audience, thus market segmentation is done and the selected segment is targeted and a product is been positioned.
Market Segmentation Definition
Market Segmentation is the sub-dividing of a market into homogeneous subsets of customers, where any subset may conceivably be selected on a market target to be reached with a distinct marketing mixPhilip Kotler
Market Segmentation consists of taking the total heterogeneous market for a product and dividing into several sub-markets or segments, each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.William J. Stanton
Objectives of Market Segmentation
In general, segmentation has the main objective to improve the competitive position of businesses. It provides better service to consumers. In addition to these main objectives are—boost sales, improve market share, to communicate, better promotion, and strengthening the image.
At least there are five advantages to be gained by doing market segmentation, namely:
- Designing Products that are More Responsive to Market Needs: The company puts the customer in the first place, and adjusts products to satisfy them and achieve customer satisfaction at a profit.
- Analyze Market: Segmentation market is helping executives to detect anyone who attacked its product market.
- Assess Opportunities: After analyzing the market, companies that master the concept of segmentation will be on the lookout for the idea to find opportunities. This opportunity is not always something that big, but in its time would be great.
- Mastering the Position of Superior and Competitive: A company that controls segments well is generally well aware of their customers. Companies understand the shifts that occurred in the segment.
- Determining Effective Communication Strategies: After learning about the targeted segment, the company will determine how to communicate effectively with the targeted segments.
Types of Market Segmentation
There are 4 different types of market segmentation and those are discussed below:
Geographic segmentation divides the market into geographical units such as nations, states, regions, counties, cities.
The organisation can choose to operate in one or more area and pay special attention to local variation. In that way, it can tailor marketing programs to the needs and wants of the local customer.
The geographic segmentation is furthermore useful when there are differences in a location where a product is marketed. The differences can be caused by cultural factors, traditions, politics etc.
In demographic segmentation, the market is divided on variables such as age, family size, family life cycle, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation, nationality, and social class.
One reason demographic variables are so popular with marketers is that they’re often associated with consumer needs and wants. Variables are easy to identify and measure.
In psychographic segmentation, buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of psychological/personality traits, lifestyle, or values.
People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psychographic profiles. Psychological profiles are often used as a supplement to geographic and demographics when these do not provide a sufficient view of customer behaviour.
In behavioural segmentation, marketers divide buyers into groups on the basis of their knowledge of, attitude toward, use of, or response to a product.
It considers variables like brand loyalty and the usage rate of the consumer.
Also Read: What is an Entrepreneurship
Bases of Market Segmentation
Bases of market segmentation are the factors that are used to divide the market into a small homogeneous market.
- Geographic Segmentation: It includes the following variables:
- Region: Continent, Country, State
- Size of metropolitan area: Segmented according to population size
- Population Density
- Demographic Segmentation: It includes the following variables:
- Family Size
- Family Life Cycle
- Social Class
- Psychographic Segmentation: It includes the following variables:
- Behavioural Segmentation: Behavioural Segmentation is based on actual customer behaviour towards products. Some behavioural variables include:
- Benefits Sought
- Usage Rate
- Brand Loyalty
- User Status
- Readiness to buy
Market Segmentation Process
Market segmentation itself is a process of grouping and sub-grouping a large heterogeneous market of the audience into similar qualities and attributes.
This helps the companies concentrate on a specified group of customers they want to target which will help them gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the market and ultimately help them gain profit.
Using market segmentation the marketers can easily customize their marketing strategies. It narrows the risk of ineffective marketing strategies and chooses the right type of market segment that would suit their marketing strategies.
Importance of Market Segmentation
One of the most importance of market segmentation is that it allows an organization to precisely reach a consumer with specific needs and wants.
Other importance of market segmentation is discussed below:
- Adjustment of product and marketing appeals
- Better position to spot marketing opportunities
- Allocation of marketing budget
- Effective competition with rivals
- Effective marketing programme
- Evaluation of marketing activities
Adjustment of product and marketing appeals
Market segmentation presents an opportunity to understand the nature of the market. The seller can adjust his thrust to attract the maximum number of customers by various publicity media and appeals.
Better position to spot marketing opportunities
The producer can make a fair estimate of the volume of his sale and the possibilities of furthering his sales. In the regions where response of the customers is poor, the strategy of approach can be readjusted accordingly to push the sale.
Allocation of marketing budget
It is based on market segmentation that marketing budget is adjusted for a particular region or locality. In the place where the sales are limited, it is no use allocating a huge budget.
Effective competition with rivals
It helps the producer compete with his rivals effectively. The producer can adopt different strategies for different markets taking into account the rivals strategies.
Effective marketing programme
It also helps the producer to adopt an effective marketing programme and serve the consumer better at comparatively low cost. Different marketing programmes can be used for different segments.
Evaluation of marketing activities
Market segmentation helps the manufacturer to find out and compare the marketing potentialities of the products. It helps to adjust production and using resources in the most profitable manner. As soon as the product becomes obsolete, the product line could be diversified or discontinued.
Examples of market segmentation
Example of geographic segmentation
McDonald is an example of geographic segmentation. It customizes its menu that varies from country to country. McDonald’s has introduced burgers with no beef or no pork in it for India. And likewise in Mexico, more chilli sauce is used.
KFC in India concentrates on veg products in south India and on chicken products in North India.
Example of demographic segmentation
Ferrero SpA an Italian manufacturer of branded chocolate is an example of demographic segmentation. Its sub-brand kinder manufacture chocolate specially for children and has also separate colours and toys for girls and boys.
Example of psychographic segmentation
Rolls Royce is an example of psychographic segmentation, it targets the consumer having the potential of buying luxury cars and having a rich lifestyle. It concentrates on the variable of the lifestyle of the consumer.
Example of behavioural segmentation
Airlines, hotel and such industry are the example of behavioural segmentation.
Emirates airlines are the best example for it, it offers excellent services to the passengers which helps them retain the customer.
It creates brand loyalty and make the customer loyal to their airlines and fly with them frequently.
Also Read: 4Ps of Marketing Mix
What is the Target Market?
Target market is a group of audience within which the company is planning to sell its products. It is a process after market segmentation is done, a marketer has to select one or more segments in which a marketer has to implement his marketing strategies.
The target market consists of consumers who have similar characteristics who are more likely to buy the products which will be more profitable for the company.
After the selection of one or more market segments, the marketer has to implement its marketing strategies. It has to modify the marketing mix (4Ps) as per the needs to reach to the customer.
After a target market is selected marketer needs to position its product to the selected segment of the customers.
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