Market Segmentation

  • Post last modified:10 April 2021
  • Reading time:6 mins read

Topic Covered: what is market segmentation? definition, types, bases, process, examples and importance of market segmentation.

Market Segmentation
Market Segmentation

What is Market Segmentation?

At its most basic level, the term market segmentation refers to subdividing a market along some commonality, similarity, or kinship. That is, the members of a market segment share something in common.

What is Market?

Market is a place where trade activity is carried on. It means buying and selling goods. Market refers to a huge number of audience, thus market segmentation is done and the selected segment is targeted and a product is been positioned.

Market Segmentation Definition

“Market Segmentation is the sub-dividing of a market into homogeneous subsets of customers, where any subset may conceivably be selected on a market target to be reached with a distinct marketing mix”

Philip Kotler

“Market Segmentation consists of taking the total heterogeneous market for a product and dividing into several sub-markets or segments, each of which tends to be homogeneous in all significant aspects.”

William J. Stanton

Types of Market Segmentation

There are 4 different types of market segmentation and those are discussed below:

Types of Market Segmentation
Types of Market Segmentation

Geographic Segmentation

Geographic segmentation divides the market into geographical units such as nations, states, regions, counties, cities.

The organisation can choose to operate in one or more area and pay special attention to local variation. In that way, it can tailor marketing programs to the needs and wants of the local customer.

The geographic segmentation is furthermore useful when there are differences in a location where a product is marketed. The differences can be caused by cultural factors, traditions, politics etc.

Demographic Segmentation

In demographic segmentation, the market is divided on variables such as age, family size, family life cycle, gender, income, occupation, education, religion, race, generation, nationality, and social class.

One reason demographic variables are so popular with marketers is that they’re often associated with consumer needs and wants. Variables are easy to identify and measure.

Psychographic Segmentation

In psychographic segmentation, buyers are divided into different groups on the basis of psychological/personality traits, lifestyle, or values.

People within the same demographic group can exhibit very different psychographic profiles. Psychological profiles are often used as a supplement to geographic and demographics when these do not provide a sufficient view of customer behaviour.

Behavioural Segmentation

In behavioural segmentation, marketers divide buyers into groups on the basis of their knowledge of, attitude toward, use of, or response to a product.

It considers variables like brand loyalty and the usage rate of the consumer.

Read: What is an Entrepreneurship

Bases of Market Segmentation

Bases of market segmentation are the factors that are used to divide the market into a small homogeneous market.

Bases of Market Segmentation
Bases of Market Segmentation
  1. Geographic Segmentation: It includes the following variables:
  • Region: Continent, Country, State
  • Size of metropolitan area: Segmented according to population size
  • Population Density
  • Climate

2. Demographic Segmentation: It includes the following variables:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Family Size
  • Family Life Cycle
  • Income
  • Occupation
  • Education
  • Generation
  • Ethnicity
  • Nationality
  • Religion
  • Social Class

Psychographic Segmentation: It includes the following variables:

  • Interests
  • Activities
  • Opinions
  • Values
  • Attitudes

Behavioural Segmentation: Behavioural Segmentation is based on actual customer behaviour towards products. Some behavioural variables include:

  • Benefits Sought
  • Usage Rate
  • Brand Loyalty
  • User Status
  • Readiness to buy
  • Occasions

Market Segmentation Process

Market segmentation itself is a process of grouping and sub-grouping a large heterogeneous market of the audience into similar qualities and attributes.

This helps the companies concentrate on a specified group of customers they want to target which will help them gain a competitive advantage over their competitors in the market and ultimately help them gain profit.

Using market segmentation the marketers can easily customize their marketing strategies. It narrows the risk of ineffective marketing strategies and chooses the right type of market segment that would suit their marketing strategies.

Importance of Market Segmentation

One of the most importance of market segmentation is that it allows an organization to precisely reach a consumer with specific needs and wants. Other importance of market segmentation is discussed below:

  1. Market segmentation helps the company understand why the consumer likes or doesn’t likes their product. A marketer can have a clear understanding of his consumer.

  2. A marketer can satisfy the need of the consumer more effectively. Market segmentation helps in both customer satisfaction and in achieving maximum sales.

  3. Market segmentation helps the marketer to formulate meaningful marketing strategies.

  4. Market segmentation makes sure that effective use of the resources is being made.

  5. Market segmentation helps a company gaining a competitive advantage over its competitors. It helps the company serve the consumers more effectively and gain loyal customers.

  6. Market segmentation helps to build a close relationship with the customer, it helps then interact with the customers about the product and help them identify a possible market opportunity.

Examples of market segmentation

Example of geographic segmentation

McDonald is an example of geographic segmentation. It customizes its menu that varies from country to country. McDonald’s has introduced burgers with no beef or no pork in it for India. And likewise in Mexico, more chilli sauce is used.

KFC in India concentrates on veg products in south India and on chicken products in North India.

Example of demographic segmentation

Ferrero SpA an Italian manufacturer of branded chocolate is an example of demographic segmentation. Its sub-brand kinder manufacture chocolate specially for children and has also separate colours and toys for girls and boys.

Example of psychographic segmentation

Rolls Royce is an example of psychographic segmentation, it targets the consumer having the potential of buying luxury cars and having a rich lifestyle. It concentrates on the variable of the lifestyle of the consumer.

Example of behavioural segmentation

Airlines, hotel and such industry are the example of behavioural segmentation.
Emirates airlines are the best example for it, it offers excellent services to the passengers which helps them retain the customer.

It creates brand loyalty and make the customer loyal to their airlines and fly with them frequently.

Read More: Wikipedia

Also Read: 4Ps of Marketing Mix

What is the target market?

Target market is a group of audience within which the company is planning to sell its products. It is a process after market segmentation is done, a marketer has to select one or more segments in which a marketer has to implement his marketing strategies.

The target market consists of consumers who have similar characteristics who are more likely to buy the products which will be more profitable for the company.

After the selection of one or more market segments, the marketer has to implement its marketing strategies. It has to modify the marketing mix (4Ps) as per the needs to reach to the customer.

After a target market is selected marketer needs to position its product to the selected segment of the customers.

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