Types of Mutual Fund

It is common to note that a small investor saves a part of his income to meet future expenses like education, marriage, medical expenses and…

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Advantages of MIS

The advantages of MIS to businesses, governments, scientists, universities, students, non-profit organisation and all other entities are diversified. Some of the most often realised benefits…

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External Sources of Finance

External Sources of Finance Equity SharesPreference SharesDebentures and BondsVenture capitalTerm LoansLease financing Equity Shares Every company has a statutory right to issue shares to raise…

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Types of Working Capital

The working capital in a certain enterprise may be classified into the following types. Initial working capitalRegular working capitalFluctuating working capitalReserve margin working capitalPermanent and…

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Ratio Analysis

What is Ratio Analysis? Ratio analysis refers to the study of various financial ratios to evaluate the performance of the firm. The utility of ratio…

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Internal Audit

What is Internal Audit? Internal audit is the review of the various operations of the company & of its records by staff specially appointed for…

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Audit Working Papers

What is Working Papers? SA 230 on "Documentation" refers to working papers prepared or obtained by the auditor & retained by him in connection with…

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Internal Control

What is Internal Control? The plan of organization and all the methods & procedures adopted by the management of an entity to assist in achieving…

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Vouching

What is Vouching? Vouching means inspection by an auditor of documentary evidence supporting & substantiating transactions. Vouching is the process of checking documentary evidence that…

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Leavening Agent

What is Leavening Agent? Leavening agents are the agents that increase the surface area of the dough or batter by creating gas bubbles in the…

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Types of Audit

There are various types of audit. Auditor may choose any audit procedure for conducting audit of financial statements. Audit procedure may vary from enterprise to…

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Sampling Method

In sampling technique, instead of observing and studying each and every unit of universe, only a part of it is studied, assuming that it best represents the entire population.

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What is Income Tax

What is Income Tax? Income Tax is tax on income. According to the Constitution of India, income tax is a central subject. Income Tax on…

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Leadership Development

Leadership development is the process implemented to impart knowledge, skills, attitudes and visions to managerial personnel discharging roles of leaders to support them and manage the work successfully and professionally.

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Coaching

Coaching means to improve performance often short term in a specific skills area. The goals are basically set by the coach; let it be intermediate goals or sub-goals to achieve. Direct feedback is present in coaching.

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360 Degree Feedback

360 Degree Feedback Performance-appraisal data collected from ‘all around’ an employee, his or her peers, subordinates, supervisors, and sometimes, from internal and external customers. This…

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Employee Orientation

What is Employee Orientation? Employee Orientation is an initial process that provides easy access to basic information, programs and services, gives clarification and allows new…

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Brand Building Process

Brand building process refers to enhancing a brand’s equity directly through advertising campaigns and indirectly through promotions. A well-planned brand building process follows many sequential steps, which are contextual, and thus cannot be generalized for all brands.

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Types of Communication

Communication is the process of passing information and understanding the same from one person to another. Thus, communication means to understand information, facts or opinions of…

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Types of Communication
Types of Communication

Business Communication

What is Business Communication? Business communication is the process of expression, channelling, receiving and interchanging of ideas in commerce and industry. Business Communication In simple…

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Business Communication
Business Communication

Sales Territories

A sales territory represents a group of customers or markets or geographical areas. Sales territories are geographical area that can be covered conveniently and canonically by a sales person.

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Sales Quotas

sales quota is a quantitative goal assigned to a sales unit relating to a particular period of time. A sales unit may be a territory, a branch office, a region, a distributor or a person.

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Sales Analysis

It is a detailed examination of sales volume by territory, sales person, customer, product line, etc. It works on the principle that the trends of the total sales volume conceal rather than reveal the market reality. Researchers reveal that in most organizations a large percentage of customer order territories bring in a small percentage of total sales.

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Sales Control

Sales control function assists the manager in ascertaining which level of sales has been achieved, why there has been a variance, and which remedial action can be taken to achieve the target results

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Sales Budget

Sales managers must be aware of the types of expenses that are incurred both before and after the sale as well as the sales revenues generated. Budgeting becomes a key task of sales management. It is also known as a blueprint for making profitable sales.

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How Recession Started?

How recession started? According to the assumptions and reports of honorable IMF chief economist and ex- RBI governor Mr. Raghu Ram Rajan. US and China…

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Assessment Centre

Assessment centres are a series of exercises commonly used by employers to test skills not readily assessable from an interview alone. Assessment centre is a method used particularly in military or management.

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Assessment Centre
Assessment Centre

Performance Monitoring

What is Performance Monitoring? Performance monitoring may be defined as the process of appraising an environment of continuous learning and development. It will be done…

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Public Speaking

Public speaking is a talk given to a large gathering. It is given on various occasions. Its aim is usually to encourage, appreciate, congratulate or entertain; it is usually followed by applause from the audience.

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Public Speaking
Public Speaking

Competency Models

Competency Models Performance monitoring may be defined as the process of appraising an environment of continuous learning and development, maintaining the employee’s performance, enhancing individual…

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Performance Planning

What is Performance Planning? The performance planning is all about exploration of what individuals need to do and know in order to improve their performance…

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Performance Management System

What is Performance Management System? Performance Management System: It is a process used to communicate organizational goals and objectives, reinforce, individual accountability this goals, and…

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Plant Layout

What is Plant Layout? Plant layout is the overall arrangement of the production process, store-room, stock-room, tool-room, material handling equipment, aisles, racks and sub-stores, employee…

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Operation Management

What is Operation Management? Operations Management is best understood using systematic approach. It involves understanding the nature of issues and problems to be studied, establishing…

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International Human Resource Management

International businesses are required to recruit, train, motivate, nurture and retain apart from effectively utilizing their services at all levels of functioning be its corporate office, at the foreign production units plants, therefore, the process of procuring, allocating and effectively utilizing human resources in international business is called International Human Resource Management.

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Maintenance of ERP

Maintenance of ERP ERP support displayed a key definition: In the first place, we offered definitions for customary business frameworks support. We characterized the upkeep…

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Business Process Management

What is Business Process Management? Business process management (BPM) is a systematic approach to making an organization’s workflow more effective, more efficient and more capable…

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Benefits of ERP

Benefits of ERP ERP is a class of business organization programming routinely a suite of facilitated applications that affiliation can use to assemble, store, direct…

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ERP Implementation

Integration of Process Using ERP As discussed earlier the ERP system integrates all the departments of organization with a single database which leads to various…

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Performance Management

Performance management is a system designed to identify the ways to achieve organizational goals through constant assessment and feedback leading to improvement of employee performance.

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Essential Elements of a Valid Contract

Essential Elements of a Valid Contract: Offer & Acceptance, Capacity, Consideration, Consent, Free Consent, Coercion, Undue Influence, Fraud Misrepresentation, Mistake, Unlawful Object, Contingent, Declared as Void.

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Essential Elements of a Valid Contract
Essential Elements of a Valid Contract

Sales of Goods Act 1930 | Business Law

Sec. 4 (1), The Sale of Goods Act, 1930" A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a price. There may be a contract of sale between one part-owner and another.

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Capital Structure

Capital structure refers the way a corporation finances its assets by using a combination of equity, debt, or hybrid securities. A firm's capital structure is…

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Retained earnings

It is regarded as the most dependable source of longterm finance. Retained earnings are an easy source of internal financing to use because they are…

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Term Loans

Term loans are provided to the industrial sector by commercial banks, development financial institutions, state level financial institutions and investment institutions. Terms loans are secured…

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Venture Capital

Venture capital: The term 'venture capital' represents financial investment in a highly risky project with the objective of earning a high rate of return. Venture…

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Debentures

What is Debentures? Definition: Debentures are a fixed-interest, fixed term investment. They are offered by finance and industrial companies which are referred to as issuers.…

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Preference Share

What is Preference Share? Preference shares as those shares which carry preferential rights as the payment of dividend at a fixed rate and as to…

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Equity Capital

Equity capital is funds paid into a business by investors in exchange for common or preferred stock. This represents the core funding of a business, to which debt funding may be added.

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What is Audit?

An audit is an independent examination of financial information of any entity, whether profit-oriented or not, and irrespective of its size or legal form, when such an examination is conducted with a view to expressing an opinion thereon.

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Importance of Training

Training is a very important tool in all the departments of the business e. g. finance, production, marketing etc. The return on investment in training is huge in terms of higher productivity, enhancing skills of the employees, increasing the motivation levels etc.

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Indian Contract Act 1872 | Business Law

The Indian Contract Act mostly deals with the general principles and rules governing contracts. The Act is divisible into two parts. The first part (Section 1- 75) deals with the general principles of the law of contract and second part (Sections 124-238) deals with certain special kinds of contracts

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Rat and Poison Puzzle 1 | Puzzle Interview

Rat and Poison Puzzle 1: You have 1000 wine bottles, one of which is poisoned. You want to determine which bottle is poisoned by feeding the wine to the rats. The poisoned wine takes one hour to work. How many rats are necessary to find the poisoned bottle in one hour?

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Public Relations

Public relations is a unique management function which helps organizations to establish and maintain mutual lines of communications, understanding, acceptance, and cooperation with their public(s). Public relations are a strategic communication process that builds mutually beneficial relationships between organizations and their publics.

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Cloud Computing Advantages and Disadvantages

Cloud computing advantages are Cost-saving, Better performance, Automatic software updates, Unlimited storage capacity, Mobility, Increased computing power. Cloud Computing Disadvantages are Internet connection is required, Performance can vary, Technical issue, Security Threat etc.

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Cloud Computing Tutorial

Cloud Computing Definition: Cloud Computing refers to configuring, manipulating, and accessing the software resources and hardware remotely. It offers online data storage, infrastructure, and application.

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Theories of Learning

Theories of learning have been developed as models of learning which explain the learning process by which employees acquire a pattern of behavior. Four Theories of Learning are: Classical conditioning theory, Operant conditioning theory, Cognitive learning theory, Social learning theory.

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Theories of Learning
Theories of Learning

What is Perception?

Perception is the process by which a person interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. It is a cognitive process by which people attend to incoming stimuli, organise and interpret such stimuli into behaviour.

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What is Perception?
What is Perception

Theories of Personality

Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his or her behaviour toward goal achievement. There are four theories of personality: psychoanalytic theory, type theories, trait theories, self theory.

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Theories of Personality
Theories of Personality

What is Value Chain Analysis?

The value chain model is also known as Porter’s Value Chain model. Analysis is a business management tool that was developed by Michael Porter and described in his popular book Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior Performance in 1985.

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Market Segmentation

Market Segmentation is the sub-dividing of a market into homogeneous subsets of customers, where any subset may conceivably be selected on a market target to be reached with a distinct marketing mix. Types of market segmentation are geographic, demographic, psychographic and behavioural segmentation.

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CASE Tools | Software Engineering

A CASE (Computer Aided Software Engineering) tools mean any tool used to automate some activity associated with software development. Some of these CASE tools assist in phase-related tasks such as specification, structured analysis, design, coding, testing etc.

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Cohesion and Coupling | Software Engineering

A good software design implies clean decomposition of the problem into modules and the neat arrangement of these modules in a hierarchy. The primary characteristics of neat module decomposition are low coupling and high cohesion. Cohesion is a measure of functional strength of a module.

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Analysis Modeling | Software Engineering

At a technical level, software engineering begins with a series of modeling tasks that lead to a complete specification of requirements and a comprehensive design representation for the software to be built. The first technical representation of a system which is the analysis model, actually a set of models. There have been many methods proposed for analysis modeling.

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Requirements Elicitation | Software Engineering

The requirements elicitation and specification phase starts when the feasibility study phase is completed and the project is found to be technically and feasible. The goal of the requirements analysis and specification phase is to understand client requirements and to systematically organize these requirements in a specification document.

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Evolutionary Model | Software Engineering

Evolutionary model is also referred to as the successive versions model and sometimes as the incremental model. In Evolutionary model, the software requirement is first broken down into several modules (or functional units) that can be incrementally constructed and delivered.

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Iterative Waterfall Model | Software Engineering

In Iterative waterfall model, the feedback paths are provided from every phase to its preceding phase. In practice, it is not possible to strictly follow the classical waterfall model for software development work. In this context, we can view the iterative waterfall model as making necessary changes to the classical waterfall model so that it becomes applicable to practical software development projects.

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Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC)

A software development life cycle (SDLC) is a series of identifiable stages that a software product undergoes during its lifetime. A software development life cycle model (also called process model) is a descriptive and diagrammatic representation of the software life cycle.

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Functions of Financial Management

Functions of Financial Management Functions of Financial Management are: Estimating Financial RequirementsDeciding Capital StructureSelecting a Source of FinanceSelecting a Pattern of InvestmentProper Cash ManagementImplementing Financial…

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Scope of Financial Management

Scope of Financial Management Scope of Financial Management are: Estimating Financial RequirementDeciding Capital StructureSelecting a Source of FinanceSelecting a Pattern of InvestmentProper Cash ManagementImplementing Financial…

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