What is Research Design? Features, Components

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What is Research Design?

Research design refers to the overall strategy or plan that a researcher outlines to conduct a study and gather relevant data to address a research question or test a hypothesis. It serves as a blueprint for the entire research process, providing a structure and guidance for the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data.

In the field of research, the major purpose of research is to find a solution for a given research problem. The researcher can find a solution to a research problem by ensuring that he/she uses an appropriate research design.

The chances of success of a research project depend on how the researcher has taken care to develop a research design that is in line with the research problem. A research design is created or developed when the researcher prepares a plan, structure and strategy for conducting research.

Research design is the base over which a researcher builds his research. A good research design provides vital information to a researcher with respect to a research topic, data type, data sources and techniques of data collection used in the research. In this chapter, you will study about the concept of research design, its need, features, components, etc.

Next, the chapter will describe the types of research design, research design framework, and types of errors affecting research design. Towards the end, you will study about the meaning of experiments and types of experiments.

Concept of Research Design

The research design refers to the framework of research methods and techniques selected by a researcher. The design chosen by the researchers allows them to use appropriate methods to study and plan their studies effectively and in the future. The descriptive research method focuses primarily on defining the nature of a class of people, without focusing on the “why” of something happening.

In other words, it “explains” the topic of research, without covering why “it” happens. Let us study in detail about the concept of research design, its requirements, features or characteristics, designing research framework its related case studies and observations.

Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, casual research and errors arising while designing the research which are related to improper selection of respondents. This is a framework for determining the research methods and techniques to be used. This design enables researchers to set the research methods that are most relevant to the subject.

The design of the research topic describes the type of research (testing, research, integration, experimentation, review) and its sub-type (test design, research problem, descriptive case study). Research design can also be considered as the blueprint for collection, measurement and analysis of data.

The type of research problem the organisation is facing will determine the structure of the research and not the other way around. The study design phase determines which tools to use and how to use them. Impact studies often create less bias in the data and increase confidence in the accuracy of the data collected. A design that produces a small error limit in test studies is usually considered to be the desired result.

In research, the important things are:

  • A specific statement of intent
  • Strategies used to collect and analyse data
  • Type of research methodology
  • Potential objections to research
  • Research study settings
  • Timeline
  • Analysis rating

Need and Features of Research Design

Much of what we do in our daily lives is based on understanding, what we have learned from others, or what we have learned through personal experience or observation. Sometimes, there are conflicting ideas about what is good or what works in a particular situation.

In addition, what works in one situation or situation may be ineffective or even harmful in another, or it may be combined with other measures. Psychological techniques ignore the impact of external factors that can influence what is seen. Even in health care settings, there are gaps in knowledge, ideas about how something can work better and ideas for improvement.

Since health professionals cannot afford to be risky, research is needed. For clinical trials, this is also a legal requirement that pharmaceutical companies cannot obtain marketing authorisation (i.e., permission to sell their new drugs) until they are approved by the relevant authorities.

Another advantage of doing research is that in most studies, the findings can be statistically recorded and statistically evaluated to determine if the findings are significant (meaning how much they can be called with a certain degree of certainty that they are not just a risk factor).

With limited studies, results can usually be performed in a broader population (for example, in people with dementia, caregivers, GPs, or generalised individuals, depending on the study group). This is because steps would be taken to ensure that the group of participants in the study, represented other people in that category, as far as possible.

The advantage of many quality studies is that they allow for a thorough investigation of a particular aspect of the human experience. They give people the opportunity to express in their own words how they feel, what they think, and how they make sense of the world around them.

In some cases, the results may be passed on to others as conditions. However, the advantage of quality studies is that it provides rich, logical and insightful information on the complexity of human experience with all the contradictions, differences and idiosyncrasies. Others discuss topics that have not been researched before and maybe facing issues that are controversial, critical, or illegal.Some courses also work to give voice to vulnerable or small groups

Features of Research Design

Proper research design makes your study a success. Effective research provides accurate and impartial information. You will need to create a survey that meets all the key design features. Key features of a good research design are:


When planning your study, you may need to think about the details you are going to collect. The results shown in the study should be fair and impartial. Understand the ideas about the last scores tested and the conclusions from most people and consider those who agree with the results obtained.


With regular research, the researcher involved expects the same results regularly. Research design should be developed in a way that good research questions are developed and quality results are ensured. You will only be able to access the expected results if your design is reliable.


There are many measuring tools available. However, the only valid measurement tools are those that assist the researcher in measuring results according to the research purpose. The list of questions created from this project will be valid.

General practice

The effect of your design should apply to people and not just to the restricted sample. A comprehensive design means that your survey can be done on any part of the people with the same accuracy. The above factors affect the way respondents respond to research questions and therefore all of the above factors should be balanced in good design. The researcher must have a clear understanding of the different types of study design in order to choose which model to use in the study.


Quality research helps in understanding the problem and to develop hypothesis. Researchers rely on high-quality research methods that conclude “why” a certain idea exists and what “responders” say.


A quantitative study is one of the situations in which statistical conclusions are arrived at on the basis of collected data. Numbers provide a better idea of how to make critical business decisions. Research is needed for the growth of any organisation. The information taken from the data and the analysis of the hard data is very effective in making decisions related to the future of the business.

Components of Research Design

The main purpose behind the design of the study is to help avoid a situation where the evidence does not address the main research questions. The research design is about a logical problem and not a planning problem.

The five main components of a research design are:

  • Research questions
  • Course suggestions
  • Units of analysis
  • Linking data to propositions
  • Interpretation of the findings of the study

The components of research design apply to all types of standardised, extra-terrestrial research, whether physical or social sciences.

Research questions

This first item raises the type of question – about “who,” “what,” “where,” “how,” and “why” – provides important clues as to the proper research methodology used. Use three paragraphs: First, use the books to reduce your interest in one or two topics.

In 2nd paragraph, take a closer look — or cut — a few key lessons from your favorite topic. Find questions in those few studies and conclude with new questions for future research. In the 3rd paragraph, check out another science group on the same topic. They may offer support for your potential questions or suggest ways to sharpen it.

Course suggestions

Each suggestion directs the focus to something needed to be tested within the study. Only if you are forced to give some suggestions will you go the right way. For example, you would think that businesses are cooperating as they receive the same benefits.

This suggestion, in addition to highlighting an important theoretical issue (that some corporate incentives do not exist or do not matter), also begins to tell you where to look for related evidence (defining and determining the magnitude of specific benefits in each business).

Unit analysis

It is associated with the basic problem of defining what “case” is – a problem that has affected many researchers at the beginning of the study. Take the example of medical patients. In this case, the person is being studied, and that person is an important unit of analysis.

Information about the right person will be collected, and few such people can be part of a multidisciplinary investigation. You will need study questions and suggestions to help you find the right information to collect about this person or people. Without such questions and suggestions, you may be tempted to cover “everything” about the person (s), which is not possible.

Data linking and propositions

Data linking methods and propositions such as pattern, definition structure, time series analysis, logic models and cross-case synthesis. The actual analysis will require you to compile or calculate your study data as a direct indication of your initial study suggestions.

Interpretation of findings from the study

Statistical analysis determines whether the research results support the hypothesis. Several statistical tests, for example, T-tests (determining whether two groups are statistically different from each other), Chi-square tests (where data is compared with the expected result), and oneway analysis of variance (provides multiple group comparisons), are performed by data type, number, and types of variables and data categories.

Statistical analysis provides some clear ways to translate. For example, according to the agreement, social science looks at a level below -55 to show that perceived differences are “statistically significant.” On the other hand, the analysis of many cases will not depend on the use of statistics and therefore focuses on alternative approaches to these approaches.

Business Ethics

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Research Methodology


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Procurement Management

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