Types of Hypotheses

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Types of Hypotheses

There are six types of hypotheses, which are classified on the basis of their derivation and formulation are mentioned:

On the Basis of Derivation

On the basis of derivation, there are two types of hypotheses, which are explained as follows:

Inductive Hypothesis

In inductive hypothesis, you move from specific observations to broad generalisations. First, you observe a phenomenon. Then, you form a pattern from your observations. After that, you form a hypothesis to study the pattern.

Finally, you form a theory on the basis of your study of the pattern. The inductive hypothesis is used to conduct qualitative studies of subjective variables. In this type of hypothesis, you should ask open-ended and process-oriented questions.

Deductive Hypothesis

In this type of hypothesis, you move from a general statement to a specific, logical conclusion. You start from a theory and based on it you make a prediction of its consequences. In other words, you predict what the observations should be if the theory were correct.

Finally, analysis is done to arrive at a conclusion, whether the theory is rejected or accepted with respect to the problem. In deductive hypothesis, research goes from general theory to specific observation. In this type of hypothesis, you should ask closed-ended and outcome-oriented questions.

On the Basis of Formulation

Directional Hypothesis

This hypothesis checks the direction of relationship between two variables. In directional hypothesis, you use terms, such as more than, less than, negative and positive. An example of the directional hypothesis is: in an organisation, women are more productive than men.

Non-Directional Hypothesis

In this hypothesis, the direction of relationship between two variables cannot be specified. For example, an organisation wants to get feedback from its employees about their job satisfaction level. In this example, the test result can be positive or negative depending on the job satisfaction of the employees.

Null Hypothesis

In this hypothesis, there is no relation between two variables under study. It is denoted by H0 . Null hypothesis is used as the first statement in a hypothesis, which you (or the researcher) want to reject.

For example, a null hypothesis is: There is no relation between the number of years of experience held by an individual and his performance. Therefore, researchers are more interested in disproving or rejecting the null hypothesis. This is an example of null hypothesis that would be tested for rejection because it is generally held that experience and performance are related.

Alternative Hypothesis

This hypothesis states that there is a relationship between two variables under study. It is denoted by H1 . It is used as the second statement in a hypothesis that you want to accept.

For example, an alternative hypothesis can be: There is a relation between the qualification of an individual and better job opportunities. Since these two variables are related, you would want to accept this statement.

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