What is Descriptive Research? Types, Features

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What is Descriptive Research?

Descriptive research is a type of research that describes the number of people, situations, or objects being studied. This methodology emphasises on answering questions pertaining to “what” than the “why” of the research subject. The cardinal focus of descriptive research is to simply elucidate on the nature of the demographics under study rather than focusing on the “why”.

This is because it is essential to become much knowledgeable of whatever the research obstacle is about before examining why it survives in the original place. For example, an investor looking at investing in a volatile housing market in Amsterdam needs to understand what the current market situation is, how it is changing (increasing or decreasing), and when it changes (season) before asking why. That’s where descriptive research comes into play.

Types of Descriptive Research

This research is divided into various classes depending on the nature of the method utilised to make descriptive research. The various types of descriptive studies are highlighted below:

Descriptive Test

Descriptive research uses research to collect data on a variety of topics. This data aims to determine the extent to which different conditions can be obtained in these studies.

For example, a researcher requires to ascertain the suitability of engaged specialists in Maryland. She uses research as her research tool, and each item in the research-related study is subject to a Yes / No answer. In this way, the researcher can describe the qualifications obtained by the employed people of this community.

Descriptive-Normative Survey

This is an extension of the descriptive survey, in addition to the standard feature. In descriptive-standard studies, research results should be compared with the norm.

For example, an organisation that wishes to test the skills of its employees by a team may make them test skills. Skills testing is a test tool in this regard, and the result of these tests is compared to the normality of each role. If the team points are one common deviation above the definition, it is very satisfactory, if, within the definition, it is satisfactory, and one common deviation under the definition is unsatisfactory.

Descriptive Situation

This is a multifaceted descriptive method that seeks to answer questions about real-life situations. A survey will be conducted to gather enough data on employees’ income, then their performance will be assessed and compared with their salary. This will help to determine if high income means better performance and income means less or the opposite performance.

Descriptive Analysis

The descriptive analysis method defines a topic by analysing it continuously, which involves dividing the two parts.

For example, the HR staff of a company that wishes to evaluate the role of each company employee may differentiate between employees working at Head Office in the US and those working in the Oslo office in Norway. A questionnaire was compiled to evaluate the role of employees with the same salary and the same post.

Descriptive Classification

This method is used in biology to distinguish plants and animals. A researcher wanting to analyse aquatic animals into various levels will collect units from multiple search ways, and he will arrange them respectively.

Descriptive Comparisons

In a descriptive comparison study, the researcher looks at two unused variables and then establishes a formal process to conclude that one is better than the other.

For example, the test body wants to determine the best way to perform tests between paper-based and computer-based tests. A random sample of potential participants in the trial may be asked to use 2 different methods, and items such as failure rates, time items, etc. will be examined to ascertain the most suitable system.

Related Studies

Corresponding research is used to determine whether the relationship between the two variables is positive, negative, or neutral. That is, if there are two variables, let X and Y be exactly the same, equate differently or related.

Examples of Descriptive Research

There are various examples of descriptive research, which can be highlighted from its types, uses and uses. However, we will only limit ourselves to 3 different examples in this article.

Comparing Student Performance

The educational institution may wish to 2 compare the performance of its high school students with English and Mathematics. This can be used to divide students based on 2 main groups, with one group moving forward to study during the course, while other study subjects in the arts and social sciences. Students who are very good at maths will be encouraged to enter STEM and step back. Institutions can use this data to identify student points of weakness and act on self-help strategies

Scientific Classification

During the great scientific breakdown of plants, animals, and periodical table items, the features and elements of each study are explored and used to determine how they are classified.

For example, living things can be classified into the Plantae kingdom or the animal kingdom, depending on their nature. Ongoing classification can include animals into mammals, fragments, vertebrae, invertebrae, etc. All of these distinctions are made as a result of descriptive research that defines what they are.

Human Behavior

When learning about a person’s behavior based on an object or event, the researcher sees the characteristics, behavior, and response, and uses it when concluding. A company that is willing to sell in the target market first needs to study market performance. This can be done by looking at how the target responds to a competitive product and then using it to determine its effectiveness.

Features of Descriptive Research

The characteristics can be highlighted by its information, statements, data collection techniques, and other kind of samples. Some aspects are:


Descriptive research uses a multidisciplinary research method by collecting unparalleled data that will be used for statistical analysis of a sample of the population. This is especially true when you are doing research in physical science.


A qualitative research approach can be developed and implemented, to better define the research problem. This is because descriptive research is more descriptive than experimental or experimental.

Uncontrolled variables

In descriptive studies, researchers are not able to control flexibility as they do in experimental studies.

Reason for more distant research

The outcomes of descriptive research can be examined and implemented to other research techniques. It can also inform the next line of research, including the research methodology to be used. This is because it provides basic information on the research problem, which may raise some questions such as why something is the right approach.

Describe the features of titles

Used to find features of topics, including features, character, opinion, etc. This information can be collected using research, which is shared with respondents, which is research studies. For example, a study that examines the number of thousands of hours in the community he spends on the Internet each week will help the service provider make informed business decisions.

Rate data trends

It is useful to measure changes in data over time using mathematical methods. Consider the case of people who want to invest in the stock market, so they examine the change in stock prices available to make an investment decision. Commercial companies however make the descriptive research process, while people look at data trends and make decisions.

This study can take a survey to determine the people are buying the new phone. Do low-income people buy the phone, or are they the only high-income earners? Another study using another method will explain why low-income people buy a phone even though they cannot afford it. This will help to promote strategies that will attract more low-income earners and increase corporate sales.

Verify existing conditions

When you are unsure of the effectiveness of an existing situation, you can use descriptive research to find the basic patterns of the research object.

Overtime done

Descriptive research was performed over a period of time to detect changes observed in each area over time. With the higher the number of times it is done, the conclusion will be more realistic.

Response and impartiality answer

Respondents can choose not to answer questions or give incorrect answers if they feel that the questions are too confidential. When researchers use observation methods, respondents may also decide to behave in a certain way because they feel they are being observed. The researcher may decide to influence the outcome of the study because of his or her opinion or bias.

For example, a stockbroker who also owns a business may try to entice investors to invest in his company by resorting to fraudulent results. A case study or sample taken from a large number of people does not represent everyone. The scope of descriptive research is limited to that of the study, with no information as to why the scope of the study was limited.

Data Collection Techniques From Descriptive Research

There are three main ways to collect data from descriptive research, namely; point of view, method of study, and research design:

Point of View

The viewing method allows researchers to collect data based on their behavior and respondent traits, with respondents themselves having no direct input. It is often used in market research, psychology, and other social science research to understand human behavior. It is also an important part of physical science research, as it is one of the most effective ways of conducting descriptive research. This process can be considered calculated or quality.

Measurement observations include an objective collection of numerical data, the results of which can be analysed using computational and numerical methods. Quality recognition, on the other hand, involves looking at symbols and not measuring numbers. The researcher makes observations from a distance, writes them down, and then uses them to inform the conclusions.

Method of Study

Case studies are a sample group (individual, group of people, organisations, events, etc.) and its features are used to describe the characteristics of a larger group where a case study is a small group.

The information gathered in the forensic investigation may be designed to work for a larger group. This practice, however, can be dangerous because case studies are not sufficient to make accurate predictions for large groups. Exemplary studies are a serious form of general practice.

Research Design

This is the most popular method of data collection in research design. In a survey, researchers conducted a survey or questionnaire and then distributed the answers to the respondents.

Generally, it is used to obtain quick data directly from the main source and to conduct more powerful and qualitative research. In some cases, survey research uses a combination of measurement and quantitative techniques. Surveys can be conducted online and offline using the following methods. This is a cheap way to do surveys and get enough answers.

It can be done using offline, and online survey builder:

  • Online Surveys: These have great tools and features that will help increase response rates.

  • Offline surveys: These include paper forms, offline forms, and SMS-based forms.

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