What is DMADV in Six Sigma?
The second project methodology used in Six Sigma projects is the DMADV methodology. It is also known as the Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) methodology.
Table of Content
- 1 What is DMADV in Six Sigma?
- 2 Phases of DMADV
- 3 Tool Used by DMADV
Phases of DMADV
Let us briefly discuss the phases of DMADV:
- Define: This phase focuses on defining goals in alignment with the demands of the customer and the strategy of the organization.
- Measure: This phase aims at the identification and measurement of CTQs, measurement of process capabilities, and risk identification and measurement.
- Analyse: This phase aims at the development and design of alternatives.
- Design: In this phase, the focus is on a determination of the best suitable and improved alternative based on the analysis carried out in the earlier phase.
- Verify: This stage consists of a validation of the design, conducting pilot runs, implementation of processes, and handing over the improvements to process owners.
DFSS is a business process management methodology under the broader category of traditional Six Sigma. Multiple industries make use of this methodology including engineering, electronics, finance, waste management, and marketing. DFSS makes use of statistical tools such as linear regression and facilitates empirical research.
Contrary to the prerequisite of an already existing and functioning process for implementing the DMAIC methodology, the DFSS methodology works on the principle of determination of the needs of customers and the business and converting them into product characteristics. DFSS is relevant to relatively simpler systems. The methodology is used in product and process design, unlike the other Six Sigma methodologies that are used for process improvement.
The most important aspect of any Six Sigma methodology is measurement. In conventional Six Sigma methodology, measurements are done for an existing process, whereas DFSS targets gaining a deep insight into customer needs that can be translated into internal measures or a design to satisfy customer needs.
Apart from DFSS, DMADV is also known as Identify, Design, Optimise, and Verify (IDOV). DFSS/DMADV /IDOV is focused on the creation of new processes or augmentation or replacement of an inadequate existing process with an improved one.
Tool Used by DMADV
The objective of DFSS is to mitigate problems in the service or manufacturing process with the use of advanced techniques. It also helps the organization gather an understanding of the customer needs and convert them into the engineering system parameters for enhanced product and service effectiveness and superior customer and stakeholder experience.
High customer satisfaction means an increased market share. DFSS also includes tools that help to predict and simulate the entire process of product manufacture. Therefore, it can be said that DFSS has a close association with operations research and workflow balancing methodology. DFSS is considered a design methodology that uses tools such as:
- Axiomatic Design
- Design for X (DFX)
- Design of Experiments (DOE)
- Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
- Response Surface Methodology for a Single or Multiple Response Optimization
- Taguchi Methods
- Tolerance Design
- TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadach)
Axiomatic design is a DFSS tool based on systems design methodology. Using the axiomatic design, the customer needs are transformed into functional requirements, design parameters, and process variables.
Design for X (DFX)
It is also known as Design for Excellence. DFX is a general term used in system engineering. It is used to attain different design objectives. In DFX, X can be replaced with any value such as DFA (Design for Assembly), DFC (Design for Cost), DFL (Design for Logistics), DFM (Design for Manufacturability), DFR (Design for Reliability), and DFS (Design for Serviceability).
Design of Experiments (DOE)
It is a DFSS method used to ascertain the relationship between factors affecting a process and the output of a process. It can be said that the DOE is used to find cause-and-effect relationships. Using this information, process inputs can be managed to optimize the outputs.
Quality Function Deployment (QFD)
It is a method used to transform the VOC into the engineering characteristics of a product.
Response Surface Methodology for a Single or Multiple Response Optimization
Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is a DFSS tool that helps in building empirical models based on a collection of mathematical and statistical techniques. It also used DOE to optimize a response (output variable) that is influenced by one or more independent input variables.
It is also called a robust design. It was developed by Genichi Taguchi. This method helps in assessing the impact of variation on the product/process. Both product and process experience variation which can be controllable or uncontrollable. Robustification involves studying and analyzing the variations and then optimizing the product/process design to minimize the impact of uncontrollable variation on the final product/process.
These are quality control methods and according to these methods, design is more important than the manufacturing process in quality control. It tries to eliminate variances in production before they can occur.
It is used as a quality design technique as it seeks to minimize the dispersion while at the same time meeting a design target.
TRIZ (Teoriya Resheniya Izobretatelskikh Zadach)
In simple terms, it can be described as a way of lateral thinking. TRIZ is based on two principles. According to the first principle, the current problem or a problem similar to the one at hand has been solved before and the problem can be solved creatively if the previously devised solution is found and adapted accordingly.
Sometimes the DMAIC methodology also makes use of these tools but the DFSS methodology uses these tools more or less uniquely to analyze new or unique processes or products.