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Expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management in 1964. Vroom's Expectancy Theory separates effort, performance and outcomes. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory has assumed four assumptions. Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence.
Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory, also known as the two-factor theory and dual-factor theory was coined by Frederick Herzberg in 1959. He argues that there are two factors that influence the motivation of the employee in the organization.
Psychologist Abraham Maslow proposed Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory in psychology in 1940. Maslow categorized the five needs into higher and lower orders. Lower-order: Physiological and safety. Higher-order needs: Social, esteem, and self-actualization.
Motivation is an inner psychological force which activates and compares the person to behave in a particular manner. Motivation theories are categories into two: content and process theories.
Motivation is defined as inner burning passion caused by need, wants and desire which propels an individual to exert his physical and mental energy to achieve desired objectives. Motivation is goal-directed behavior.
Attitudes are evaluation statements either favourable or unfavourable or unfavourable concerning objects, people or events. They reflect how one feels about something.
Theories of learning have been developed as models of learning which explain the learning process by which employees acquire a pattern of behavior. Four Theories of Learning are: Classical conditioning theory, Operant conditioning theory, Cognitive learning theory, Social learning theory.
Learning is any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of experience. There are two primary elements in learning definition: The change must be relatively permanent and change must occur due to some kind of experience or practice.
Perception is the process by which a person interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. It is a cognitive process by which people attend to incoming stimuli, organise and interpret such stimuli into behaviour.