What is Motivation?
Motivation is defined as inner burning passion caused by need, wants and desire which propels an individual to exert his physical and mental energy to achieve desired objectives.
Motivation is goal-directed behavior. People are motivated when they expect that a course of action is likely to lead to the attainment of a goal and a valued reward – one that satisfies their needs and wants.
Three components of motivation
- Direction: what a person is trying to do.
- Effort: how hard a person is trying.
- Persistence: how long a person keeps on trying.
Table of Contents
- 1 What is Motivation?
- 2 Motivation Definition
- 3 Motivation Meaning
- 4 Concept of Motivation
- 5 Types of motivation
- 6 Characteristics of Motivation
- 7 Importance of Motivation
- 8 Motivation Theories
Motivation is the willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organisational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual needs.Stephen P Robbins
It is the desire within an individual that stimulates him or her to action.George R. Terry
It is the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings or needs direct, control or explains the behaviour of human beings.D.E. McFarland
It is a process of stimulating people to action to accomplish desired goals.Scot
It is the way in which urges, drives, desires, aspirations, strivings need direct, control or explain the behaviour of human beings.Mc Farland
It is a willingness to expand energy to achieve a goal or reward. It is a force that activates dormant energies and sets in motion the action of the people. It is the function that kindles a burning passion for action among the human beings of an organisation.C.B. Mamoria
It is steering one’s actions toward certain goals and committing a certain part of one’s energies to reach them.S.W Gellerman
Motivation comes from the Latin word “movere” which means, “to move“.
Concept of Motivation
Need: A need is a condition of lack or deficit of something required by the organism/person.
Motives: Motive is defined as an inner state that energises, activates (or moves) and directs (or chanalises) the behaviour towards certain goals.
Read: What is Learning?
Types of motivation
The two types of motivation are:
Intrinsic motivation can arise from self-generated factors that influence people’s behaviour. It is not created by external incentives.
It can take the form of motivation by the work itself when individuals feel that their work is important, interesting and challenging and provides them with a reasonable degree of autonomy (freedom to act), opportunities to achieve and advance, and scope to use and develop their skills and abilities.
Extrinsic motivation occurs when things are done to or for people to motivate them.
These include rewards, such as incentives, increased pay, praise, or promotion; and punishments, such as disciplinary action, withholding pay, or criticism. Extrinsic motivators can have an immediate and powerful effect, but will not necessarily last long.
Read: What is Attitude?
Characteristics of Motivation
Characteristics of motivation are briefly explained below:
- Motivation is a psychological phenomenon
It is the inner desire of an individual to achieve something more. More is the individual motivated better performance and organization relations.
- Motivation is a continuous process
Since need and desire are endless so the need is a continuous phenomenon if one need is satisfied the other need emerges.
- Motivation is caused due to anticipated perceived value from an action.
Perceived value is the probability or expectancy. motivation= value × expectancy.
- Motivation varies from person to person and time to time
Motivation is different for different persons and it also varied according to time and place because wants are different for different people, according to time and places.
- An individual is motivated by positive or negative motivation
Positive motivation is based on incentives or reward. Incentive can be monetary and non-monetary.
Negative motivation is based on penalties, calling for explanation, threats, fear, etc. Fear of losing the job or promotion
Importance of Motivation
Broadly, the importance of motivation is as follow:
- High level of performance
- Low employee turn over and absenteeism
- Acceptance of organization change
- Organizational image
High level of performance
Organization must ensure that the employees have a high degree of motivation. A highly motivated employee put extra effort into work and have a sense of belonging for the organization.
The efficiency of work will be improved, wastage will be minimum which will result in the increased productivity, and performance level will be high.
Low employee turn over and absenteeism
Low level of motivation is a root cause of low turnover and absenteeism. High level of absenteeism causes a low level of production, poor quality, wastages and disruption in production schedules.
Increased turnover is disastrous for any organization as it puts a strain on the financial position of the organization due to additional recruitment, selection, training and development.
Acceptance of organization change
Social change and technology evolution happens in the external environment have greater impact on the motivation of the employee. Management must ensure that the changes are introduced in the organization and its benefits explained to the employees so that there is no resistance to change and organizational growth is achieved.
Re-engineering, empowerment, job enrichment, job rotation, the introduction of new technology and processes will go a long way to boost employee morale and achieve a high degree of motivation.
Employees are the mirrors of any organization. Regular training & development programmes should be organized to keep employee updated with latest skills. It will have a positive impact on the employees and the image of the organization will be improved.
High organizational image will contribute towards the brand image of the product and services the organization is marketing.
Read: Theories of Personality
Content theories try to figure “what” motivates people. Following are the motivation theories in content theory perspective.
- Maslow’s need Hierarchy
- Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
- McClelland’s Needs Theory
- Alderfer’s ERG Theory
Process theories try to figure “How” the motivation occurs. Following are the motivation theories in process theory perspective.
- Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
- Adam’s Equity Theory
- Reinforcement Theory
- Carrot and Stick Approach to Motivation
Read: Motivation Theories
- Anne Bruce and James S. Pepitone, Motivating Employees, McGraw-Hill.
- Barry Silverstein, Motivating Employees: Bringing Out the Best in Your People, Collins Business.
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