Training refers to programs and procedures undertaken with an attempt to improve current or future employee performance. Let’s now look into types of training.
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Types of Training
There are different types of training that are conducted depending upon the requirements of the trainee and the organization.
Types of Training are:
- Orientation Training
- Promotional Training
- Refresher Training
- Skills Training
- Internship Training
- Cross-functional Training
- Team Training
- Creativity Training
- Diversity Training
Just after the recruitment and selection of a new employee, a new employee is made to undergo induction and orientation training.
The objective behind this type of training is to:
- Help settle the employee in a new and unfamiliar environment
- Inducted about the procedures, rules, and regulations followed by the company
- In-depth knowledge about the company background, organization structure, products and policies is imparted to the new employee
- An employee is also made familiar to his superiors and subordinates
- It helps develop a feeling of certainty and satisfaction in the mind of the new employee as he feels cared for and is handled in the initial phase of his new job.
Employees who have the potential to grow and handle larger roles are identified and selected. They are further trained in various areas that they might need to cover when they would have to handle larger roles after promotion.
In today’s dynamic world there is a constant change in technology, procedures and policies. The traditional way of working may become obsolete very soon.
Under Refresher Training, the existing employees are trained to follow new and improved procedures and techniques to stay abreast with the competition. They are made to undergo short term courses so that they can adopt the latest developments in a particular field and are able to confidently face the upcoming challenges.
If there is a gap between the skills required for successful completion of a job and the skills possessed by the employees, there arises a need for training.
A training program is planned and the content is developed to meet the training objectives. An effective method of training is selected which could be a lecture, coaching, special courses etc. These skills could be as basic as reading, writing, communication skills, interpersonal skills etc.
Under this types of training professional colleges like management schools or engineering institutes approach organizations, companies and corporate setups and place there students under them. This helps to enhance the knowledge of the students as it gives a practical experience on the job to the theoretical knowledge gained in the college.
Under this types of training, the aim is to educate and train the employee in area of work other than their assigned jobs. This gives them a broader perspective of the business on a whole, helps them gain diverse knowledge, enhances their career path and chances of promotion.
Cross-functional training can be done by job rotation i.e placing the employees under different roles after a suitable period of time. It can also be done where the departments can exchange their personnel for a certain period that gives an insight to the employees on how other departments are working.
Team training generally covers two areas: content tasks and group processes.
- Content tasks specify the team’s goals such as cost control and problem-solving.
- Group processes reflect the way members function as a team – for example how they interact with each other, how they sort out differences, how they participate etc
Companies are investing heavy amounts, nowadays, in training new employees to listen to each other and to cooperate. They are using outdoor experiential training techniques to develop teamwork and team spirit among their employees (such as scaling a mountain, preparing recipes for colleagues at a restaurant, sailing through uncharted waters, crossing a jungle, etc.).
In creativity training, trainers often focus on three things :
- Breaking away
- Generate new ideas
- Delaying judgement
- Breaking away: In order to break away from restrictions, the trainee is expected to:
(i) identify the dominant ideas influencing his own thinking,
(ii) define the boundaries within which he is working,
(iii) bring the assumptions out into the open and challenge everything
- Generate new ideas: To generate new ideas,
(i) the trainee should open up his mind;
(ii) look at the problem from all possible angles and list as many alternative approaches as possible.
(iii) The trainee should allow his mind to wander over alternatives freely,
(iv) switch over from one perspective to another
- Delaying judgement: To promote creative thinking,
(i) the trainee should not try to kill off ideas too quickly;
(ii) they should be held back until he is able to generate as many ideas as possible.
(i) Brainstorming often helps in generating as many ideas as possible without pausing to evaluate them
Diversity training considers all of the diverse dimensions in the workplace – race, gender, age, disabilities, lifestyles, culture, education, ideas and backgrounds – while designing a training programme.
- It aims to create better cross-cultural sensitivity with the aim of fostering more harmonious and fruitful working relationships among a firm’s employees.
- The programme covers two things:
(i) Awareness building, which helps employees appreciate the key benefits of diversity, and
(ii) Skill building, which offers the knowledge, skills and abilities required for working with people having varied backgrounds.
- R. P. Lynton, U. Prateek, “Training for Development”, Sage Publications 2002.
- Goldstein, “Training in Organizations”, Burr Ridge: McGraw Hill, Irwin, 1999
- Fitzgerald, W. (1992). Training versus development. Training and Development, 46(5), 81-84.
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