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What is Performance Management System?
Performance management system is another way of foreseeing the totality of a manager’s function because it views the managerial function holistically. It is not a random collection of activities that most managers recognize and undertake as their core function.
Performance management provides a systemic dimension to the managerial activities by highlighting their mutual interrelatedness and interdependence. It emphasizes the dynamic, sequential and cyclical nature of these activities. These things are essential to actualize their potential synergistic impact, which is the source of high performance and excellence.
Table of Contents
- 1 What is Performance Management System?
- 2 Objectives of Performance Management System
- 3 Functions of Performance Management System
- 4 Characteristics of Performance Management System
- 5 Competency Based Performance Management System
- 6 Electronic Performance Management System
- 7 Process of Performance Management System
- 8 Performance Management System (PPT)
Objectives of Performance Management System
The concept of performance management arrived in the late 1980s partly as a reaction to the negative aspects of merit-rating and management by objectives referred to earlier. At first, it incorporated many of the elements of earlier approaches; for example, rating, objective-setting and review, performance pay and a tendency towards trait assessment; of which some of these features have changed.
Conceptually, human resource management has frequently been substituted for personnel management without any discernible change in approach; likewise, performance management is significantly different from previous approaches, although in practice the term has often simply replaced performance appraisal.
Performance management may often be no more than new wine in old bottles but it exists, and our research demonstrates that interest is growing. In this order, we must try to find the reasons. The following are the key objectives of PMS:
- To leverage the performance of the organization, given that goals are complex to achieve.
- To ensure role clarity in performance objectives at all levels of the organization.
- To encourage high-performance work culture in the organization. §
- To encourage team building and spirit in the organization to achieve unachievable things.
- To develop employees by systematically identifying training and development needs.
- To improve the relationship between manager and employees through a two-way communication process and by developing mutual connect.
- To focus on the process rather than on format to meet the demand and expectation.
- To encourage performance-based rewards and recognitions in the organization for increasing overall productivity.
One more very important thing which should be considered is that the use of performance management in the best practice companies is not because it is a better technique than performance appraisal, but because it can form one of a number of integrated approaches to the management of performance.
The appeal of performance management in its fully realized form is that it is holistic. It pervades every aspect of running the business and helps to give purpose and meaning to those involved in achieving organizational success.
Functions of Performance Management System
For different organizations, performance management system can fulfill different functions. The key functions of PMS are given below:
- Performance management system helps in clarifying the mission, vision, strategy, and values of the organization to the employees in order to enable them to achieve the same.
- It helps in improving various business processes as the deficiencies are highlighted.
- This process assists in attracting and retaining talents in the organization and helps in establishing a robust talent review system.
- The performance management system facilitates competency mapping, training and development need identification and implementation as part of the performance development tool. The employees have the competencies to meet both the present and emerging requirements of the organization.
- It also assists management in invalidating their recruitment and selection process and techniques.
- PMS helps employees to attain their full potential and attain a balance between work and personal life.
- It improves the organization’s ability to change faster by highlighting the gap between potential capabilities and presentability.
- PMS helps in making a shift from industrial relations to individual relations with a focus on employee growth and development.
- Performance management system enables sustainable organizational competitiveness, innovation, and low employee turnover by helping in reviewing organization structure and plan succession.
- It builds the intellectual capital not only at the managerial level but at the front-line level also.
In a nutshell, we can say that performance management seeks to balance business alignment with learning and development and performance reward.
Characteristics of Performance Management System
For understanding the characteristics of effective performance management system, these points should be considered:
- The emphasis is given on performance improvements of individuals, teams and the organization.
- It is a continuous process in which quarterly performance review discussions are held.
- The emphasis is on performance planning, analysis, review, development, and improvements.
- As per this system, performance rewarding may or may not be an integral part.
- The system is designed by HR department but could be monitored by the respective departments themselves.
- Under this system, the ownership is with line managers, HR facilitates its implementation. KPAs or KRAs are used as planning mechanisms.
- The developmental needs are identified on the basis of the competency requirements for the coming year.
- To bring performance improvements, there are review mechanisms because it is a system with deadlines, meetings, input, output and a format.
- The whole process is driven with an emphasis on the format as an aid to convenient the whole process.
- It is linked to performance improvements and through them to other HR decisions as and when necessary.
- PMS is changing in the managerial style of doing work and it creates and nurtures performing culture.
Competency Based Performance Management System
Performance management is a strategic and integrated approach and it is used for delivering sustained success to organizations. It is done by improving the performance of those who work in them and by developing the capabilities of teams and individual contributors. In any organization, development is perhaps the most important function of performance management and it is concerned with outputs.
It means the achievement of results, and with outcomes- the impact made on performance. It is also concerned with the processes required to achieve these results and the inputs in terms of capabilities (knowledge, skill, and competence) expected from the teams and the individuals involved.
In any organization, there are indicators of behavior for achieving higher levels of performance which are as follows:
- Personal drive
- Impact on results
- Analytical power
- Strategic thinking
- Creative thinking
- Commercial judgments
- Team management and leadership
- Interpersonal skills
- The ability to communicate
- The ability to adapt and cope with change and pressures
- Ability to plan and control projects.
According to Lockett (1992), “The core of performance management is the development of individuals with competence and commitment, working towards the achievement of shared meaningful objectives within an organization. This thing always supports and encourages their achievement.”
PM is concerned with creating a culture in which organizational and individual learning and development are a continuous process. This provides means for the integration of learning and work. In this, everyone learns from the successes and challenges inherent in their day-to-day activities.
To reach up to the desired outcomes, the drive to enhance performance is making ever-greater demands on the knowledge and skills of the workforce and on people, who carry much greater responsibility for their own performance.
Now a day, the performance management for teams deserves more attention because what makes an effective team, the competencies required for teamwork and a definition of what can be regarded as a team for performance management purposes?It has been found that peer pressure in teamwork is a very important factor.
Performance management processes are important in tightly knit and long-standing project teams and some of the key competencies for teamwork according to Gross (1995) are:
- Interpersonal Understanding
- The orientation towards customer service
- The adaptability
- Team Work
- Oral Communication
- Achievement Orientation
- Organizational Commitment.
We can relate performance measurement for teams to the purpose of the team and its particular objectives and standards of performance.
Electronic Performance Management System
Electronic performance management or e-performance management; it offers great value for money to the organizations and addresses its needs aptly. E-performance management is essentially a PMS in the form of an online software package. It is with multiplication modules that are fully integrated with the organizational metrics. It provides greater flexibility, tracking, and access of performance management to large number of employees and managers across the organization, across the world at the press of a button.
It allows organizations to maintain a record of core skills and competencies into the employee’s performance management process. E-performance management provides templates for a wide application that could be used across organizations spread in different parts of the world through one software module and it provides the following features:
- Job or individual-centered performance contracts.
- Uploading of performance criteria.
- Secure online appraisal with a password.
- An automatic e-mail notification of completed appraisal to employee and manager.
- Workflow system to monitor appraisal progress.
- Archive retrieval possible for retrieval of previous period appraisals.
- Assigning different weighting protocols.
- Viewing competency ratings.
- Viewing compensation details.
- Career advancement and opportunities available
Implementing performance management across an organization creates the potential for a large amount of administrative overhead. The process of performance management must be completed and approved, feedback and counseling must be provided from multiple reviewers, documents rated, deadlines monitored, and many of these activities must be performed multiple times during each performance cycle for each and every employee.
Process of Performance Management System
The following steps should be followed while designing a competency-based performance management system:
- Categorizing Competencies.
- Mapping Competencies.
- Building Competency Models.
- Profiling Competency Framework for a particular Role.
- Potential Assessment Centre for Competency Mapping.
The competencies can be divided into two categories i.e. “threshold” and “differentiating” according to the performance criterion they predict.
- Threshold Competencies: The threshold competencies are the essential characteristics (usually knowledge or basic skills, such as the ability to read) that everyone in a job needs to be minimally effective. But it will not distinguish superior from average performers. For example, the threshold competency for a salesperson is knowledge of the product or ability to fill out invoices.
- Differentiating Competencies: These are the competencies that include such factors that distinguish superior from average performers. We can state that achievement orientation expressed in a person’s setting goals higher than those required by the organization, is a competency that differentiates superior from average salespeople.
It begins with identifying key competencies for an organization and/or a job and incorporating those competencies throughout the various processes i.e. job evaluation, training, recruitment of the organization. When competency is based on job description, the second step involves mapping those competencies throughout the organization’s human resources processes.
The competencies of the respective job description are used as factors for assessment on performance evaluation. Using this method, it helps in more objective evaluations based on displayed or not displayed behaviours. Taking competency mapping one step further, the assessment is that the results of performance evaluation can be used to identify in what competencies individuals need additional development or training.
Building Competency Models
For developing the model, there are three ways in which competencies will be used:
- Behavioral Indicators: These indicators describe the behaviors, thought patterns, abilities and traits of the people that contribute to superior performance.
- Evaluative Competency Levels: The organizations are setting exceptional competencies of high performers as standards for evaluating competency levels of employees.
- Competencies Describing Job Requirements: This approach is useful for those types of organizations having multiple competency models. In this connection, the competencies required in a particular job are described. Job-specific competency models help in structuring focused appraisal and compensation decisions which is useful to the organization.
Profiling Competency Framework for a Particular Role
To identify rolespecific competencies anywhere, it required industry specific, functional and behavioral competencies. Then it needs to be developed for enhanced performance. The approach for developing a competency framework for a particular role is as suggested below:
- The first thing is to understand the strategic business context of the organizations in terms of its structure and environmental variables.
- Then the second thing is to detail role descriptions for different positions. After this, defining and scaling (relative importance and mastery level) of specific behaviors for each identified competency as a measure of performance.
- After defining and scaling, develop a competency framework taking into consideration the core values and the culture of the organizations in addition to specific functional and level requirements. This should align with the vision and mission of the company.
- At last, validate the competency framework through a workshop, which should include functional experts and top management personnel in order to define critical and desirable competencies. In this process, it is required to substantiate the extent to which the competencies differentiate between high and average performers by validating the content and criteria.
The competency framework includes technical competencies, behavioural competencies and the proficiency levels required for each competency and each competency should be detailed in terms of behavioral indicators that enable observation and assessment.
Potential Assessment Centre for Competency Mapping
The competency mapping exercise is exercised to know the linkage between competencies and roles through which the most critical, success driving behaviors for specific roles are established. Against the validated competency framework, an individual’s potential is identified through an Assessment Centre process and it is outlined below:
- First of all, design assessment centre.
- Conduct an assessment centre.
- Map individual competencies and gaps as per designed assessment centre.
- Finally assess organizational capability and gaps.
Through an effective system of measuring the proficiency of an individual on the desired competencies for the role, a link between people and competencies is established. To design and conduct a potential Assessment Centre, it should follow basic principles in terms of accuracy, fairness, reliability, legality, efficiency, multiple assessors, multiple tests and optimal stress to increase performance.
Performance Management System (PPT)
Performance management system is another way of foreseeing the totality of a manager’s function because it views the managerial function holistically. It is not a random collection of activities that most managers recognize and undertake as their core function. Performance management provides a systemic dimension to the managerial activities by highlighting their mutual interrelatedness and interdependence.
It emphasizes the dynamic, sequential and cyclical nature of these activities. These things are essential to actualize their potential synergistic impact, which is the source of high performance and excellence. By implication, it also explains why focusing on only one or a few of these activities doesn’t deliver the results which were expected or required.
Any system needs certain prerequisites to function smoothly, so does performance management system. Performance management system becomes easier to do and more productive to the extent that:
- It should be used holistically, as a system.
- The relevant subsystems are in place and accepted mutually.
- The organization’s philosophy and human environment are conducive to high morale.
- The manager is oriented to and equipped with, high performing attitudes and leadership skills.
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