Job Analysis

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What is Job Analysis?

Job Analysis is regarded as the process of determining all the necessary information about a particular job.

In other words, job analysis records information about the task involved in the job, the knowledge and skillset required to perform that job, the responsibilities and abilities required for the successful performance of that job.

Job Analysis differentiates one job from another in the organization and it serves as the basic foundation for many HR activities of the organization.

Concept of Job Analysis

Job Analysis is considered one of the most important activities performed by a human resource manager. This unit will throw light on the concept of job analysis by describing its meaning, definition, and process with special emphasis on the job description and job specification which are then considered as the end result of job analysis.

The success of almost all the major functions of a human resource manager like training and development, performance appraisal, etc. depends on effective job analysis.

Components of a Job Analysis

Job Analysis can be further categorized into the following components:

  1. Job Position: The designation of the job and the employee holding that designation in the organization is referred to as the job position. job position serves as the base for the compensation system in an organization.

    The high designated job as well as the job holder receives higher compensation in comparison to the lower one. For example the top-level manager of any organization receives more compensation than a lower-level worker.

  2. Job Description: Each job position is different from one another because they require different sets of tasks and responsibilities to hold that position such as experience, expertise and knowledge level. These tasks, duties, roles, and responsibilities describe the in-depth details to perform that job.

  3. Job Worth: Job worth refers to calculating the worthiness of a job in the organization. In other words job, worth estimates how much the job contributes towards the attainment of the organizational overall objective.

    It is also known as job evaluation which serves as the base for establishing a fair compensation system in the organization.

Process of Job Analysis

The process of analyzing a particular job may consist of the following steps:

  1. Job Specific Competency Determination: This is one of the key steps for doing a proper jab analysis. Job-specific competency determination means identifying and collecting the job data and using the same data for the preparation of job description and job specification.

    There are various sources through which job data can be collected, for example, job analyst, employee, and supervisor, etc. The data can be collected by using various methods like interviews and observation.

  2. Developing a Job Description: A description of the tasks, duties, responsibilities and functions associated with the job is prepared.

    For example, the job description for a marketing manager is to manage and coordinate all marketing, advertising and promotional staff and activities.

  3. Developing a Job Specification: The job specification caters to a complete picture of the competencies and abilities required to perform functions and duties associated with a particular job.

    For example, in order to perform the role of a marketing manager, the person holding the position should have a degree in marketing management as well as experience in all aspects of developing and managing marketing strategies.

Methods of Job Analysis

There are different methods of analyzing a job. A manager can use any of the following methods based on situation and suitability to the business organization.

Methods of Job Analysis are:

  1. Observation Method
  2. Individual Interview Method
  3. Group Interview Method
  4. Group Interview Method
  5. Diary Method
  6. Functional Job Analysis
  7. Position Analysis Questionnaire
  8. Critical Incident Technique
  1. Observation Method: This method is one of the simplest methods for analyzing a job. In this method the persons holding the job are observed and relevant points are recorded by the observer. The points which are focused while observation is what was done in the job and how it was done.

    There are two methods of observation:

    (a) Direct Observation,
    (b) Work method analysis.

  2. Individual Interview Method: This method is suitable for the job which is complex and involves a variety of tasks. The interview is done between the job analyst and the job incumbent.

    The interview could be both structured and unstructured but the structured one is less time consuming and gives the exact data that the analyst is searching for. Most of the time the job data provided by the job incumbent is supplemented by his supervisor also to increase the accuracy of the job data.

  3. Group Interview Method: This method is the same as the individual method. In this method, in spite of interviewing individuals, a group of employees holding a particular job position are interviewed and the data is recorded by the job analyst.

    This method is less time-consuming in comparison to individual interview methods but sometimes the effect of group dynamics may change the direction of the interview and the job analyst may not get accurate job data.

  4. Group Interview Method: In this method the job-related data is collected from job experts or supervisors. This is considered as a relevant method for collecting unbiased job-related information but the non-involvement of the job holder sometimes doesn’t give the true picture of the job.

  5. Diary Method: In this method of job analysis, the job incumbent requires to record all the activities that he/she performs while being on the job. A lot of information can be gathered with the help of this method but this exercise consumer more time to complete.

    There are some activities in the job that are performed once in a month or at definite time intervals, for example sending monthly attendance and doing annual performance appraisal.

  6. Functional Job Analysis: In this method of job analysis, the job incumbent requires to record all the activities that he/she performs while being on the job. A lot of information can be gathered with the help of this method but this exercise consumer more time to complete.

    There are some activities in the job that are performed once in a month or at definite time intervals, for example sending monthly attendance and doing annual performance appraisal.

  7. Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ): The PAQ allows management to scientifically and quantitatively analyze group interrelated job elements into job dimensions. It represents a high degree of reliability in case the employees do not cooperate in the process or they try to manipulate the information provided.

    The information collected from PAQ is helpful in the job description and job specification as well as Job evaluation.

  8. Critical Incident Technique: John Flanagan proposed the Critical Incident Technique of job analysis in 1954. According to this technique, behaviour in a particular or specific situation is responsible for the success or failure of individuals or organizations.

    A compilation of all the critical actions and behaviour, which involves the action of workers as well as the context in which that act was done, provides a clear picture of the job. The information on critical incidents can be collected and complied with the help of interviews and questionnaire.

What is Job Description?

Job description is the most common end product of job analysis. A job description is a written statement of what the job incumbent does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done.

In other words, job description describes in detail the various aspect, scope and purpose of a job. It is a statement of duties, functions, tasks, activities and responsibilities of a position or job.

It represents the working conditions under which a particular job has to be performed as well as the reporting relationship in the organization. Job descriptions are used in crucial Human resource functions like recruitment and selection, training and development and performance appraisal, etc.

A job description has the following components-

  • Job Identification
  • Job Summary
  • Job Duties
  • Supervision Required
  • Relation to Other Jobs
  • Machine or Equipment Required
  • Working Condition
  • Social Environment

What is Job Specification?

  • The human characteristics required to perform the job satisfactorily are termed as job specifications. It indicates the eligibility criteria which means the qualification, abilities, skills and intelligence, education and expertise required to perform the job.

    Elements of Job Specification:

    1. Educational Requirement
    2. Experience
    3. Specific Knowledge Requirement
    4. Skill Requirement
    5. Personality Requirement
    • Essential Attributes
    • Desirable Attributes
    • Contra-Indicators

Uses of Job Analysis

Effective job analysis and well-prepared job description and job specification help the HR manager in the successful performance of many HR functions and activities. These are some uses of Job Analysis:

  • Employment
  • Organizational Audit
  • Training and Development
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Performance Appraisal
  • Promotion and Transfer
  • Guidance
  • Labour Relation
  • Health and Safety
  • Career Planning
  • Succession Planning
  • Compensation management

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