Types of Training in HRM

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Training refers to programs and procedures undertaken with an attempt to improve current or future employee performance. Let’s now look into types of training.

Types of Training

There are different types of training that are conducted depending upon the requirements of the trainee and the organization. The different types of training are discussed below:

  1. Induction and orientation training
  2. Promotional training
  3. Refresher training
  4. Skills training
  5. Internship training
  6. Cross-functional training

Induction and orientation training

Just after the recruitment and selection of a new employee, he is made to undergo induction and orientation training. The objective behind this types of training is to help settle the employee in a new and unfamiliar environment; he is inducted about the procedures, rules and regulations followed by the company.

An in-depth knowledge about the company background, organization structure, products and policies is imparted to the new employee. He is also made familiar to his superiors and subordinates. It helps develop a feeling of certainty and satisfaction in the mind of the new employee as he feels cared for and is handled in the initial phase of his new job.

Promotional training

Employees who have the potential to grow and handle larger roles are identified and selected. They are further trained in various areas that they might need to cover when they would have to handle larger roles after promotion.

Refresher training

In today’s dynamic world there is a constant change in technology, procedures and policies. The traditional way of working may become obsolete very soon.

Under refresher training, the existing employees are trained to follow new and improved procedures and techniques to stay abreast with the competition. They are made to undergo short term courses so that they can adopt the latest developments in a particular field and are able to confidently face the upcoming challenges.

Skills training

If there is a gap between the skills required for successful completion of a job and the skills possessed by the employees, there arises a need for training.

A training program is planned and the content is developed to meet the training objectives. An effective method of training is selected which could be a lecture, coaching, special courses etc. These skills could be as basic as reading, writing, communication skills, interpersonal skills etc.

Internship training

Under this types of training professional colleges like management schools or engineering institutes approach organizations, companies and corporate setups and place there students under them. This helps to enhance the knowledge of the students as it gives a practical experience on the job to the theoretical knowledge gained in the college.

Cross-functional training

Under this types of training, the aim is to educate and train the employee in area of work other than their assigned jobs. This gives them a broader perspective of the business on a whole, helps them gain diverse knowledge, enhances their career path and chances of promotion.

Cross-functional training can be done by job rotation i.e placing the employees under different roles after a suitable period of time. It can also be done where the departments can exchange their personnel for a certain period that gives an insight to the employees on how other departments are working.


  1. R. P. Lynton, U. Prateek, “Training for Development”, Sage Publications 2002.
  2. Goldstein, “Training in Organizations”, Burr Ridge: McGraw Hill, Irwin, 1999
  3. Fitzgerald, W. (1992). Training versus development. Training and Development46(5), 81-84.

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