Expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management in 1964. Vroom's Expectancy Theory separates effort, performance and outcomes. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory has assumed four assumptions. Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence.
Theories of learning have been developed as models of learning which explain the learning process by which employees acquire a pattern of behavior. Four Theories of Learning are: Classical conditioning theory, Operant conditioning theory, Cognitive learning theory, Social learning theory.